Mamuthones of Mamoiada, a 2000-year-old Carnival Ritual

Angela Corrias in Tharros Sardinia

Angela Corrias

Since I first attended the Mamuthones’ ritual for Carnival in Mamoiada in 2009, I can’t recall how many times I went back to see it. There is something primordial in this Sardinia festival, which made it immediately hit my list of top Carnivals in Italy.

Each region, city and town in Italy celebrates its own Carnival, and all celebrations differ in history and culture. Venice Carnival gave the chance to the lower classes to blend with the noble families for one day thanks to the mask everyone wore. In Oristano, Sardinia, they celebrate the Sartiglia with fascinating rituals and equestrian tournaments, and vaulting.

In many other places, Carnival is a legacy from pagan times when people celebrated the end of winter and the new harvest. This is what’s behind the Mamuthones festival in Mamoiada.

Being a local myself, I’ve always known that attending the Mamuthones festival at least once in your life is one of the top things to do in Sardinia. But it’s only after you have seen it by yourself, and experienced the vibe that it conveys, that you fully understand why.

Image: Mask of the Mamuthones of Mamoiada Carnival.

Mamuthones, celebrating Carnival in Mamoiada

So in this village in Sardinia’s Barbagia region, close to Orgosolo and Nuoro, the Carnival is a 2000-year-old ritual that gives visitors from all over Sardinia and other European countries a precious experience.

The stars of this Sardinian Carnival are the Mamuthones. Their origins are not fully clear, which adds to the mystery of their image. Even though they “come out” a few times a year, the townspeople “feel” their presence all year long. And this is why, year after year, century after century, the town of Mamoiada carries on with this tradition, attracting visitors to every Carnival.

Academics and historians study and debate over the origins of Mamoiada’s festival, but natives don’t seem to bother participating much in the argument. The Mamuthones have always been a presence in their town and they have no reason to think they will still be in the future.

Who are the Mamuthones of Mamoiada?

Pre-Christian masquerades that have been performing this ritual for the past 2,000 years, the Mamuthones show up on the streets of the village for the first time of the year the night between the 16th and the 17th of January on the occasion of Sant’Antonio Abate (Saint Anthony Abate). After roughly a month, in February, they appear on Carnival Sunday and on Shrove Tuesday.

With much research going on, it seems everyone reached more or less the same conclusion and placed the rhythmical dance of the Mamuthones among the propitiatory rituals to bid farewell to the cold winter season and welcome the warm and bright spring and summer.

The new season brings also the new harvest and being Mamoiada a mountainous area, the life of the natives was and to some extent still is, strongly dependent on the harsh local geography and weather.

Image: Dress of the Mamuthones of Mamoiada in Sardinia.

The dance of the Mamuthones for Saint Anthony and Carnival

The festival in honor of Saint Anthony is celebrated in many towns in Sardinia, and everywhere bonfires are lit up in all the neighborhoods, with the biggest being in the main square. In Mamoiada, the Mamuthones dance around the main bonfires all night long.

In the two parades they do for Carnival, there is no bonfire, so the ritual is slightly different. The type of steps and dance are exactly the same, but for Carnival, they just parade in two rows along the streets of the village and somehow they mix with the other masks celebrating the festival. In my opinion, for Saint Anthony, it’s more intimate and the bonfires give a magical atmosphere.

Their dance consists of rhythmic jumps cadenced by the sound of some 30 kg of bells that they carry on their shoulders. Their dress is made of black moleskin trousers typical of Sardinian clothes for men, a white blouse, and black sheepskin on top. The bells are placed in descending order with the biggest on top

After wearing all the parts of the costume, only the mask is left. It needs to be dark-brown wood, strictly handmade, and as ugly as possible to convey a dramatic look.

It’s easy to understand why they attract thousands of visitors every year. It’s a journey back in time many people can relate to. It’s a throwback to human instincts when religion was more connected to nature and people’s needs.

Image: Issohadores of Mamoiada's Carnival.

The Mamuthones are usually twelve, to symbolize the number of the months, and parade dancing rhythmically in two parallel lines, gliding in through the tangle of narrow streets of the city center, reproducing the propitiatory ritual aimed at interceding with natural forces.

Parading along the main figure of the Mamuthones are the Issohadores. Their name was given after the “soha,” the lasso they use to joke around during the parade and seize the local women.

The Issohadores, dressed in red and white, are usually eight or ten. Their duty is to guard the Mamuthones, and one of them leads the whole parade along the streets of the town providing the instructions the Mamuthones need to follow to be perfectly synced when performing their dance.

The ritual of getting dressed

Their costume, a mix of animal skin and manmade tools, are evocative of the primordial tie between men and animals/nature. In prehistoric times, especially in rural areas, livestock was pivotal for the survival of the community as they served as food as well as for working. This is why in many of the festival’s reminiscences of pagan times, animals are widely represented.

When they start their ritual dance, the heavy steps of each of them are perfectly synced together. The sheep bone-made clapper hitting the bronze of the bells makes the sound needed to stave evil off.

The process of wearing the costume takes hours and is closed to the public. We were lucky enough to have been able to see it and take pictures. It really was part of the ritual itself. There are two cultural associations in Mamoiada that run the show, and we’ve been invited n the backyard of the old house where the “Associazione Atzeni-Beccoi,” one of the two. All the parts of the clothes are laid on the ground and each “Mamuthone” gets dressed with the help of outsiders.

After getting dressed, they perform the ritual once inside the backyard without wearing the mask, and when the leader Issohadore deems they are ready, they wear the black mask and go out to meet the crowds.

At the end of the parade which lasts pretty much all afternoon until the evening, the Mamuthones go back to their original venue to rest, eat but first of all, take off the 30-something kg of bells carried around all day.

Image: Mamuthones dressing in Mamoiada.

Tips to enjoy your trip to see the Mamuthones

Book ahead

Mamoiada is a small town with a very limited choice of B&Bs, so booking in advance is highly recommended. I stayed in several B&Bs in Mamoiada and my favorites were Ortensia and Perda Pintà.

If you can’t find a place in any accommodation in Mamoiada, you can try the neighboring towns like Orgosolo or Nuoro.

Plan an itinerary

If you made your trip to Mamoiada, you should definitely visit the surroundings.

Don’t miss towns such as Orgosolo, Dorgali and Nuoro and the nearby natural attractions such as Su Gorropu, the Ispinigoli Grottoes and the Cedrino river.

Not far, it’s also very interesting to visit the archaeological sites around Mamoiada. You will find ancient necropoleis like the domus de janas (Sardinian for fairies’ houses) and tombe dei giganti (giants’ tombs).

If you have more time, you can plan a longer trip to Sardinia and explore the different regions and traditions of the island.

Pack wisely and warm

Whether you are attending the Mamuthones festival of Saint Anthony in January or Carnival in February, in Mamoiada winter is very cold. Keep in mind that it’s a mountainous area, temperatures can get close to zero, especially at night, and it might snow.

My suggestion is to pack winter clothes, comfortable shoes, a warm coat or jacket, and possibly a hat and scarf. The party and celebrations might continue until late at night, so warm clothes are a must.

Blend in with locals

Hospitality is important all over Sardinia, but in this area, it’s sacred. If a Mamoiada resident invites you, don’t hesitate and accept. The local foods are all made using homegrown, genuine ingredients, the Cannonau red wine is one of the best on the island, and the festival is an occasion to share homemade local meals altogether in the main piazza. Their hospitality will truly make you feel at home.

Where to stay around Mamoiada during Carnival

Mamoiada is a very small town with very limited accommodation options and availability. Their Mamuthones Carnival is very famous all across Sardinia as well as Italy and Europe, so if you want to attend, you need to plan ahead and reserve your hotel room much in advance.

In Mamoiada, you are going to find a few B&Bs such as Ortensia (our favorite!), B&B Domus Deiana, and Villa Maria.

If you can’t find a room in Mamoiada itself, I suggest checking out B&Bs and guesthouses in nearby Orgosolo and in Nuoro, the province capital and bigger city, so with a larger availability of accommodation.

How to reach Mamoiada

Extra-urban public transport in Sardinia is not well-organized, so my suggestion is to rent a car. Your best bet is to use Google Maps. Even though the road is good, consider that Mamoiada is in a mountainous area.

If you are coming from Cagliari, take the highway S.S. 131 towards Sassari up to Abbasanta and follow the signs towards Nuoro. When you are getting close to Nuoro, you will find the sign toward Mamoiada-Lanusei.

If you reach the island by ferry and are traveling from Porto Torres or Sassari, take the highway S.S. 131 towards Cagliari up to Abbasanta and then follow the same directions mentioned above (Nuoro first then Mamoiada-Lanusei).

If you are coming from Olbia or Nuoro, take the S.S. 131 towards Cagliari and turn to the interchange Mamoiada-Lanusei.

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